Line, Shape, Value, Space, Color, Form, Texture

The Art Elements are what art images are made up of.
Artists can use any number of Art Elements they choose.
(The DESIGN PRINCIPLES (Balance, Contrast/Variety, Focal Point, Unity, Movement)
can be used to describe how an artist arranges the art elements in an artwork)
LINE: Lines can be used to outline shapes, create details, and textures.
Lines can be thick, thin, wavy, straight, curved, etc.
Lines can be implied or real.
SHAPE: Shapes are created when each end of a line is connected.
Shapes are 2 dimensional (Width & Height)
FORM: Forms are 3D shapes. The 3 dimensions are Width x Height x Depth
Forms are found in sculpture.
The illusion of 3D Form is often created in 2D art
COLOR: Color can be used to symbolize ideas and express moods.
Color can also be use to help create the illusion of 3D Form and Space in 2D art..
VALUE: Value is the lightness or darkness of a color.
Artists can use value to create the illusion of 3D form and space.
Artists can also use Value to express moods and ideas.
SPACE: 2D Space is the area between and around shapes.
3D Space is taken up by 3D sculptures
The illusion of 3D space can be created on a 2D surface
TEXTURE: Texture can describe the way an actual object feels when touched (real texture)
or what it looks like it would feel when touched (visual texture).
There are 2 kinds of visual texture: simulated and invented.
A painting of furry kitten has simulated texture
A drawing with crosshatching or stippling for shading has invented texture




lack or absence of symmetry (see symmetry below)


To constrain is to impose limitations or restrictions on someone or something,

or to force yourself or someone else to act in a certain way.

"a constrained smile"; to hold back by or as if by force
"constraining my mind not to wander from the task" — Charles Dickens
Constrain is used often in computer graphic language. For example when you HOLD THE SHIFT KEY
and scale a shape or an image, you are constraining the proportions of height and width so that they don't
get distorted. You can also move objects at precise angle increments by holding shift; this is how you
constrain on a horizontal axis or 90 degree angle etc.


noun: difference, dissimilarity, disparity, distinction, contradistinction, divergence, variance, variation,

differentiation; contradiction, incongruity, opposition, polarity.

Another word for convention is rule

to remove the upper or outer parts of

Sometimes cropping can create BALANCE in a composition that was not originally balanced.
Cropping and heavily editing images off the Internet can sometimes be a way to make your own art
out of someone else's art. But it's only okay if the original art is not at all recognizable. But always try
and get your own images first.


to twist out of a natural, normal, or original shape or condition.

Artists can distort many things: PROPORTIONS, COLOR, TEXTURE, etc.









noun: the quality of being made up of exactly similar parts facing each other or around an axis:


Portraits, Still lifes, Landscapes, Room Interiors, Figures


Real, Simulated, Invented

About Value


: .

ICON: a symbol or design used as an identifying mark; a pictorial symbol on a computer screen.
With Mac OS X, The swirling beach ball is the icon for a frozen program.

ILLUSION of 3D: Artists often try to create the illusion of 3D SPACE & FORM on 2D surfaces

INCONGRUOUS: not in harmony or keeping with the surroundings or other aspects of something : the duffel coat looked incongruous with the black dress she wore underneath.

INFORMAL BALANCE: Another name for ASYMMETRICAL BALANCE, in which unlike objects have equal VISUAL WEIGHT or eye attraction.

JUXTAPOSE: place or deal with close together for contrasting effect : black-and-white photos of slums were starkly juxtaposed with color images.
Derivative: JUXTAPOSITION (noun)

MERGE: to become combined into one

PROTOCOL: a code prescribing strict adherence to correct etiquette and precedence
The FILE NAMING protocol for Ms. Hooker's students is as follows: The PROJECT NAME followed by the STUDENT'S FIRST name using mixed case and no spaces. Here's an example:

RADIAL SYMMETRY : the condition of having similar parts regularly arranged around a central axis

REVERT: to come or go back (as to a former condition, period, or subject)
I think just about every computer program has the REVERT option in the FILE MENU. A good practice before you try something you're not sure about is to save your work and then proceed with out fear! If disaster strikes, all you have to do is go to FILE > REVERT and your file will go back to the last time you saved.

SCALE: scale something up or down in size, number or extent: his whole income scaled down by 20 percent; one cannot suddenly scale up a laboratory procedure by a thousandfold.

VALUE: Classic Graphic Design Theory